¶ As streams of waters, the king’s heart is in the hand of Jehovah; He extends it wherever He desires.
17 For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very thing I raised you up, so that I might show forth My power in you, and so that My name might be publicized in all the earth.” Ex. 9:16
18 So, then, to whom He wills, He shows mercy; but to whom He wills, He hardens.
21 Or does not the potter have authority over the clay, out of the same lump to make one vessel to honor, and one to dishonor?
Note: God himself is making both types of vessels. They are not making themselves out of a neutral lump of clay.
God, who is the potter, is making vessels of mercy and making vessels fitted out for destruction.
He will have mercy on whom he will…and he will harden whom he will.
Pharaoh is a vessel that God will harden that was fitted out for destruction and Moses is a vessel of mercy that he will have mercy on which was prepared for glory.
Jehovah will give Egypt, (a heathen nation, a nation worshipping the creation instead of the creator, a idol worshipping nation )for Israel’s atonement freeing them from bondage and slavery. Jehovah seen their affliction and heard their cry from before their taskmasters.
God’s deliverance of the nation of Israel is representative of God eventually fulfilling his future promise that all of (Spiritual )Israel will be saved. Exodus 3:7,Isaiah 43:3, Isaiah 45:25, Revelation 7:9, Roman 11:26
¶ It is not, however, that God’s Word has failed. For not all the ones of Israel, these are of Israel,
Not all persons within the nation of Israel were ultimately saved but all of spiritual Israel will be saved composed of Jew and Gentile Isaiah 45:25… all the seed of Spiritual Israel are the children of promise, The elect. Romans 9:6,7,8,11,27 Revelation 7:9, Romans 11:26
Jehovah God watches over and delivers his people that he loves and goes before them to fight their battles and He protects them while fulfilling all his promises including the promise of saving his people. They contribute nothing to their salvation it is a gift based only on Christ’s work and person
Romans 8:31, 33, Isaiah 43, Ezekiel 12:28 Romans 3, Ephesians 2:8-10, Isaiah 45:24, John 6:37-44, Matthew 1:21
22 But if God, desiring to display wrath, and to make His power known, endured in much long-suffering vessels of wrath having been fitted out for destruction,
23 and that (in order that)He make known the riches of His glory on vessels of mercy which He before prepared for glory,
24 whom He also called, not only us, of Jews, but also out of nations.
God displays his wrath and makes his power known in front of his people and their enemies so they will know that he is Jehovah and be feared, reverenced and worshipped
Ezekiel 25:17, Deuteronomy 1:30,Joshua 3:5-7, Psalm 106:7-12
In Exodus 4:21 Jehovah tells Moses that he will harden or make strong the heart of Pharaoh so that he will not let the Israelites go when Moses tells the Pharaoh to let the Israelites go and He will show Pharaoh many wonders with the staff that He has put in Mose’s hand.
Each time God hardens Pharaoh’s heart and he doesn’t let the Israelites go, God brings a plague until the final punishment when He kills all the Egyptian first born of men and firstborn animals in the land of Egypt that aren’t covered by the blood of the passover, a flock animal without blemish, spread over the lintel and the 2 doorposts ….which is a foreshadowing of Jesus Christ being the Passover lamb slain from the foundation of the world to take away the sins of the world (Jew and Gentile) Revelation 7:9.
Listed below are the verses in the order of events in the book of Exodus where God hardens Pharaoh’s heart, hardens the hearts of the Egyptians and delivers the plagues because of Pharaoh’s refusal to let the Israelites go
Note: any reference to Pharaoh hardening his heart is a result of his heart already having been hardened by God.
Scripture for the hardening of Pharaoh, the Egyptians and the plagues
Exodus 4:21– And Jehovah said to Moses, As you go to return to Egypt, see all the wonders which I have put in your hand, and do them before Pharaoh. And I will make strong his heart, and he will not send the people away.
Exodus 5:2- And Pharaoh said, Who is Jehovah that I should listen to His voice to send away Israel? I do not know Jehovah, and I also will not send Israel away.
Exodus 7:3– And I will harden the heart of Pharaoh.And I will multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt.
When Pharaoh speaks to you, saying, Give a wonder for yourselves, you shall say to Aaron, Take your staff and throw it before Pharaoh; and let it become a snake
10 And Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh, and they did so, as Jehovah had com- manded.And Aaron three his staff before Pharaoh and before his servants. And it became a snake.
11 And Pharaoh also called wise men and the sorcerers. And they, the diviners of Egypt,also performed by their secret arts
12 And they each man threw down his staff, and they became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed their staffs.
And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.
Exodus 7:14– And Jehovah said to Moses, The heart of Pharaoh is a heavy one; he refuses to send away the people.
And Moses and Aaron did so, as Jehovah had commanded. And he lifted up the staff and struck the water which was in the river before Pharaoh’s eyes, and before his servants’ eyes. And all the water in the river turned to blood.
Exodus 7:22- And the diviners of Egypt did so by their secret arts. And Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he did not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.
And Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.
7 And the diviners did so with their secret arts. And they brought up the frogs on the land of Egypt.
8 And Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron, and said, Pray to Jehovah that He may remove the frogs from me and from my people. And I will send away the people that they may sacrifice to Jehovah
Exodus 8:15- And Pharaoh saw that there was relief. And he hardened his heart, and he did not listen to them.
Exodus 8:19– And the diviners said to Pharaoh, It is the finger of God. And Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he did not listen to them, as Jehovah had said.
Exodus 8:24– And Jehovah did so. And teeming swarms of flies came into Pharaoh’s house, and the house of his servants, and into all the land of Egypt. And the land was destroyed before the swarms of flies.
Exodus 8:32- And Pharaoh made heavy his heart this time also, and he did not send away the people.
Exodus 9:6– And Jehovah did this thing on the next day, and all the livestock of Egypt died. And from the livestock of the sons of Is- rael, not one died.
Exodus 9:7- And Pharaoh sent, and behold, not even one was dead from Israel’s livestock! And Pharaoh’s heart was made heavy, and he did not send away the people.
Exodus 9:10-11– And they took soot of the furnace and stood before Pharaoh. And Moses sprinkled it toward the heavens, and it became a boil breaking out into boils on man and on livestock.
11 And the diviners were not able to stand before Moses, before the boil. For the boil was on the diviners and on all the Egyptians.
Exodus 9:12– And Jehovah hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he did not listen to them, as Jehovah had said to Moses.
Exodus 9:23-26– And Moses stretched out his staff to the heavens. And Jehovah gave thunder and hail. And fire came down to the earth, and Jehovah rained hail on the land of Egypt.
24 And there was hail, and fire flashing in the midst of the hail, very heavy, which never had been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.
25 And the hail struck in all the land of Egypt, all that was in the field, from men and to livestock. And the hail struck every plant of the field, and it broke in pieces every tree of the field.
26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the sons of Israel lived, there was no hail.
Exodus 9:35- And Pharaoh’s heart was made heavy, and he did not send away the sons of Israel, as Jehovah had said by the hand of Moses.
Exodus 10:1 – And Jehovah said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh, for I have made his heart heavy and the heart of his servants, so that I may set these signs of Mine in their
Exodus 10:13-15– And Moses stretched out his staff over the land of Egypt. And Jehovah drove an east wind on the land all that day and all that night. And when it was morning the east wind lifted up the locusts.
14 And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested on all the territory of Egypt, exceedingly many. Never were there locusts like them before, and afterward none will be like them.
15 And they covered the eye of the earth, and the land became dark. And they ate every plant of the land, and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. And no green thing was left in the trees and in the plants of the field in all the land of Egypt.
Exodus 10:20– And Jehovah made strong the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not send away the sons of Israel.
Exodus 10:22- 23-And Moses stretched out his hand to the heavens, and darkness of gloom was in all the land of Egypt three days.
23 They did not see each man his brother, and they did not rise up, each man from his place for three days. Yet to all the sons of Israel there was light in their dwellings.
Exodus 10:27– And Jehovah made strong the heart of Pharaoh, and he was not willing to send them away.
Exodus 11:10- And Moses and Aaron did all these miraculous signs before Pharaoh. And Jehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not send away the sons of Israel from his land.
Exodus 12: 23
And Jehovah will pass through to strike Egypt. And He will see the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, and Jehovah will pass over the door. And He will not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you.
15 And it happened when Pharaoh hardened himself against sending us away, Jehovah killed every first-born one in the land of Egypt, from the first-born of men even to the first-born of animals. On account of this I sacrifice to Jehovah every one of the males opening the womb, and I redeem every first-born of my sons.
And it shall be for a sign on your hand, and frontlets between your eyes. For Jehovah brought us out from Egypt by the might of His hand.
Exodus 14:4- And I will make Pharaoh’s heart strong, and he will pursue you. And I will be honored through Pharaoh, and through all his armies. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah. And they did so.
Exodus 14:8– And Jehovah made Pharaoh king of Egypt’s heart strong. And he pursued the sons of Israel. And the sons of Israel were going out with a high hand.
Exodus 14:17– I And behold! I am hardening the heart of the Egyptians. And they will go after them. And I will be honored through Pharaoh and through his armies, through his chariots, and through his horsemen.
Exodus 14:25- And He took off the wheels of their chariots, and made them drive with difficulty. And the Egyptians said, I will flee from the face of Israel, for Jehovah is fighting for them against the Egyptians.
Exodus 14:26 And Jehovah said to Moses, Stretch out your hand over the sea, and let the waters return on the Egyptians, on their chariots, and on their horsemen.
Exodus 14:27-And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its usual flow, at the turning of the morning, and the Egyptians were fleeing to meet it. And Jehovah shook off the Egyptians into the middle of the sea.
Exodus 14:28 And the waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen, together with all the army of Pharaoh, those going after them, into the sea. And not even one was left among them.
Exodus 14:29 And the sons of Israel walked on dry ground in the middle of the sea, the waters being a wall for them, from their right and from their left.
Exodus 14:30 And Jehovah saved Israel in that day from the hand of Egypt. And Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the lip of the sea.
Exodus 14:31 And Israel saw the great hand with which Jehovah worked against Egypt. And the people feared Jehovah, and they believed in Jehovah and in His servant Moses.
Jehovah created Israel
But now so says Jehovah who created you, O Jacob; and He who formed you, O Israel: Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I called you by your name; you are to Me.
2 When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow you. When you walk in the fire, you shall not be burned, and not shall the flame kindle on you.
3 For I am Jehovah your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior. I gave Egypt for your atonement; Ethiopia and Seba instead of you.
4 Since you were precious in My eyes, you are honored, and I love you, and I give men instead of you; and peoples instead of your soul.
5 Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your seed from the east, and I will gather you from the west.
6 I will say to the north, Give up! And to the south, Do not hold back! Bring My sons from afar, and bring My daughters from the ends of the earth;
7 every one who is called by My name, I have created him for My glory; I have formed him; yea, I have made him.
8 ¶ Bring out the blind ones, yet there are eyes; and the deaf ones, yet there are ears to him.
9 All the nations are assembled together, and the peoples be assembled. Who among them can declare this and cause us to hear former things? Give their witnesses,and be justified; or hear and say, It is true.
10 You are My witnesses, a statement of Jehovah; and My servant whom I have elected; that you may know and believe Me, and understand that I am He. Before Me no God was formed; and after Me not shall be.
11 I, I am Jehovah; and there is no Savior besides Me.
12 I declared, and I saved, and I pro- claimed; and there is not an alien god among you. And you are My witnesses, a statement of Jehovah, and I am God
When God’s people that he promised to save Matthew 1:21 receive repentance and believe the Gospel, they will never follow a stranger (false teacher, false prophet, false Christ, false God ) John 10:4,5
4 And when he puts forth his own sheep, he goes on in front of them, and the sheep follow him because they know his voice.
5 But they will not follow a stranger, not ever! But they will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of a stranger.
13 Even from this day I am He, and not one delivers from My hand. I will work, and who will reverse it?
14 ¶ So says Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel: For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought all of them down as ones fleeing, even the Chaldeans, whose shout is in the ships.
15 I am Jehovah, your Holy One, the One creating Israel, your King.
Comments, Highlights, Italics, Underlining and Parentheses Added
Verses from Literal translation KJ3 Jay P Green